Small Leader Study Guide
Date: September 30, 2018
Series: The kings and the King: Season 4 (2 Kings)
Bible Text: 2 Kings 3-4
This Week’s Printables:
Can one person make a difference? As we watch our nation swiftly transforming into a secular nation and the progressive activists in every sector working hard to erase any semblance of a Christian Heritage, many Christians are asking that question.
As we will see this week, the answer is yes! One person can make a difference. God is looking (2 Chronicles 16:9) for that one person whose heart is loyal to Him. This week, we see that in the example of King Jehoshaphat of Judah.
Israel is going to war with Moab and needs the help of Judah and Edom, which agree to the alliance. As the armies approach the border with Edom, they run out of water. This is devastating in a desert climate. Johoram, the King of Israel, immediately blames God. Jehoshaphat, the King of Judah, turns to God for help.
Seeking the counsel of Elisha, the man of God, the Kings ask for God’s help in meeting their need. Elisha refuses to speak to the apostate King of Israel, but because of the faith of Jehoshaphat, Elisha agrees to see them. God intercedes on behalf of these three nations because of the faith of one man–King Jehoshaphat of Judah.
This transitions us to the application for us today. As we will see in the second part of our lesson, Christians are experiencing a paradigm shift in terms of the Church in America. Just as God saw the faith of Jehoshaphat during the War with Moab, so He is looking for men and women of faith in our country who are interceding on behalf of this nation before Him.
How should Christians live as we become an increasingly secular nation? We have three options: isolate ourselves, assimilate, or infiltrate. We will examine each of these options. Secondly, what should Christians do to be an influence in a secular nation? We will turn to the book of Jeremiah to see God’s instructions for the Jews living in Babylon.
The take away for the group lesson comes from a quote from Al Toledo: “The prayer of the few can secure the blessing for the many.”
Memory Verse for This Week
Jeremiah 29:11 For I know the plans I have for you, declares the LORD, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope.
Core Belief: God the Father
God the Father (Psalm 121:1–2): We believe God is personally involved in and cares about the daily lives of His children.
Take Home Truth
Belief in God is not what defines a child of His, trust does. And trusting children live every day aware of their utter dependence on Him.
Looking back at your notes from this week’s sermon, was there anything that particularly caught your attention, challenged or confused you?
Make sure you ask this question this week. It gives people the opportunity to discuss questions or issues that come up beyond the written questions. People’s responses can often lead to one of the questions in the “Digging Deeper” section. Also, some weeks this question will result in a lot of discussion, other weeks, not so much.
Read the Text
In our lesson this week we will focus on 2 Kings 3 and the War with Moab. Read 2 Kings 3:1-27.
In this section, feel free to develop your own questions to help guide your group’s discussion. Below are some suggestions. Remember, if you are hearing from everyone in your group, chances are you won’t have time to discuss every question. You may start with one that catches your attention so you don’t run out of time. For example, it’s not odd to start with Question #6, then go to Question #5 and if you have time come back to Question #4.
Summarize what is happening in 2 Kings 3-4
2 Kings 3 – The narrative briefly begun in 1:1 continues here. Jehoram, son of Ahab, succeeds Ahaziah as king of Israel. He is a wicked king, but not as wicked as some of his predecessors. Jehoshaphat is the God-fearing king of Judah. They join forces, aided by the king of Edom, against the rebellious king of Moab. When their armies run out of water, Jehoshaphat calls for Elisha, the prophet of God, to aid them. Elisha makes it clear that he will only do this for a godly king like Jehoshaphat, but he prophesies that there will be ample water and that Moab will be defeated. The next morning the land is filled with water, as he said. The Moabites see the red sun reflected in the water, and think that their enemy, the Israelites and Judaites, have slaughtered one another. Rushing to the plunder, they are routed by the joint forces. The wicked king of Moab sacrifices his son and returns to his land. God’s man, Elisha, is vindicated.
While the biblical account of Moab’s rebellion against Israel focuses on the role of Elisha the prophet, another account appears on the Mesha Stele (also known as the Moabite Stone). This stone, an inscribed pillar or obelisk, dates to about 830 BC and commemorates the achievements of King Mesha of Moab—especially his defeat of Israel. The inscription mentions the Israelite kings Omri and Ahab by name, making it one of the earliest references to Israel outside the Bible. It also names Yahweh, stating that Mesha “took from there the vessels of Yahweh and dragged them before Chemosh” (lines 17–18). (Chemosh is a Moabite god.)
2 Kings 4 – The narrative of Elisha continue with a series of miraculous signs: the widow’s oil (vv. 1–7), the gift of a son for a barren Shunammite woman (vv. 8–17), the son brought back to life (vv. 18–37), the removal of death from a pot of stew (vv. 38–41), and the feeding of the one hundred (vv. 42–44). By performing the same kinds of miracles that his master once performed (provision, resurrection, healing), Elisha confirms that he has indeed inherited the spirit of Elijah. This opens up a fruitful line of messianic interpretation. If Elijah serves as a type of John the Baptist (see Matt. 17:12; Luke 1:17)—the forerunner of the Christ—then Elisha’s miracles point to the majesty of Jesus himself. Each miracle calls for a response of faith, and together these miracles confirm the truth of the word that God spoke through his servant Elisha.
Why were Israel & Judah in an alliance in the war against Moab?
The fact that Jehoram sought an alliance with Jehoshaphat indicates that he needed to cross Judean territory in order to advance against Moab. This in turn indicates that Mesha had strengthened his northern border. If Jehoram could gain Jehoshaphat, he would also gain Edom, which was now under Judah. Jehoshaphat forgot that alliances with those who sin against the Lord are forbidden to believers.
Jehoshaphat was related to the throne of the Northern Kingdom through the marriage of his son Jehoram to Ahab’s daughter Athaliah.
Why did Elisha agree to meet with the kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom?
Verses 13-14 tell the story:
13] Then Elisha said to the king of Israel, “What have I to do with you? Go to the prophets of your father and the prophets of your mother.” But the king of Israel said to him, “No, for the Lord has called these three kings together to deliver them into the hand of Moab.”
Elisha’s question is probably an idiom meaning “Why should I obey you?” The prophet’s suggestion that Jehoram go to his parents’ prophets implies that since the king promoted Baal worship he should seek his own god. This barb forced Jehoram to face up to the impotency of Baal. Jehoram’s rejoinder placed the blame for the army’s predicament on the LORD. He had come to Elisha because now it was up to Yahweh to get them out of their trouble.
The man of God boldly stated God’s attitude toward the apostate Joram. This structurally highlighted the apostasy of Israel and God’s mercy in delivering the nearly helpless kings. For a king with as little faith in God as Joram exhibited, it was hubris to say, it is the LORD who has summoned these three kings. [Andrew C. Bowling, “2 Kings,” in CSB Study Bible: Notes, ed. Edwin A. Blum and Trevin Wax (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2017), 557.]
14] And Elisha said, “As the Lord of hosts lives, before whom I stand, surely were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, I would not look at you, nor see you.
Elisha was not intimidated by Jehoram’s charge. He knew God had not directed Israel into its difficulty but that the army was there on the king’s initiative. Nevertheless for Jehoshaphat’s sake Elisha consented to seek a word from the Lord. (His words As surely as the LORD Almighty lives, whom I serve are strikingly similar to Elijah’s words to Jehoram’s father Ahab (1 Kgs 17:1; cf. 2 Kgs 5:16). Elisha received a direct revelation and proceeded to explain God’s plan. The campaign against Moab demonstrates how utterly abominable heathen religion was to God. The outcome was an object lesson to Israel showing her why she should turn from her idolatry. Nevertheless, she did not turn from it.
How did God intercede for Israel, Judah, and Edom in the War with Moab?
The strategy the Lord reveals through Elisha is a strange one. The soldiers are to dig ditches and wait, and without wind nor rain, the ditches would be filled with water. (The soldiers had run out of water and without water, they would be considerably weakened.)
Evidently God caused the water from rains in Edom to flow down into the valley and fill the trenches that had been dug. This water was an expression of God’s love for His people. The fact that it had not rained locally probably caused the Moabites to think that having water in the valley was impossible.
God also instructed the armies to pillage the land. Cutting down all the good trees would make it difficult for the Moabites to have fruit to eat and would mean they would have little shade. Stopping up all the springs would limit the Moabites’ water supply, and putting large stones in the fields would retard cultivation and lessen their productivity.
Why did Israel pull back from ultimate victory against Moab?
Defeat in battle was regarded by pagan Near Eastern warriors as a sign that their gods were angry with them. To propitiate his god, Chemosh (1 Kgs 11:7, 33; 2 Kgs 23:13), Mesha offered his firstborn son, the heir to his throne, as a human sacrifice on top of the city wall. It was not Israel’s intent to annihilate the Moabites; they only wanted to keep their neighbors from rebelling against their sovereignty to keep them under their control. So offensive to the allies was Mesha’s act of sacrificing his son that they withdrew and returned home. Israel had won the battle even though they had not destroyed Kir Hareseth or captured Mesha.
What lessons can we learn from 2 Kings 3?
The lesson of this chapter is clear: God’s miraculous power could bring unfaithful Israel to the verge of victory, but God could also take that victory away. Whether from battle fatigue in foreign lands, shock at the desperate step the king of Moab took in sacrificing his son, superstitious fear of the magic power that such a sacrifice aimed to produce, or from seeing the wrath (whether of the Moabites or of God Almighty; the text is unclear), the coalition withdrew, and Moab remained independent, though thoroughly devastated.
We also see an important principle highlighted: “The prayer of the few can secure the blessing for the many.” In this case, the faithfulness of the godly king, Jehoshaphat, secured the blessing of God for the apostate armies of Israel and Edom. God interceded for them and brought victory because Jehoshaphat was a godly king.
Application for Christians Today
During our study of 2 Kings this fall, we will rely on a new book by Erwin Lutzer–The Church in Babylon. There is much we can learn from the example of Israel & Judah concerning our experience today in an increasingly pagan world that knows who God is, but not only rejects Him as God, but is increasingly hostile to God and the Bible.
“The church is to be in the world like a ship is in the ocean. But when the ocean begins to seep into the ship, the vessel is in trouble.” — Erwin Lutzer
How would you define the church today? What are the outward signs of the church in America?
For many, these will be the physical representation of the church–it’s buildings. If we asked the question, “where is First Family Church?” the answer would likely be, “over on SE Magazine Road.” While this is correct in that it identifies the big warehouse on Magazine as First Family Church, that is not how Jesus views His church. In fact, if you look at the example from the book of Kings–the magnificent temple in Jerusalem–God care nothing for the physical meeting place of the church. When He looks across this earth, He sees the church as a representation of His people.
Ed Stetzer says it this way: “Many Christians, if they believe anything about the kingdom at all, think of it as the church itself, with its spires and steeples on top that make it almost look like a castle. But while the church is definitely inseparably involved in the work of the kingdom, the kingdom itself is not visible in the same way a church building is. You can’t see it with ordinary sight.” 
The church is not a building, it is in our hearts where God dwells.
What has happened to the Christians’ identity within America the last two decades?
Walk around Washington D.C. and you see signs of America’s Christian identity everywhere. It is engraved onto our government buildings and even printed on our money. I’m sure the progressives hate this reality as they work hard to erase as much of America’s Christian heritage as possible.
As Lutzer notes, the Christian America that many of us grew up in and have lived in for the bulk of our life is dead. “Many of the biblical values upon which America was founded are no longer being allowed to shape our laws or our lives. In some lesser ways, Christians can identify with the Jews in Babylon. Our culture is instead being shaped by religious fragmentation, widespread disaffection with the church, changing sexual attitudes, and moral and spiritual relativism. Add to that ‘political correctness’ and the ‘religion’ of our political parties run amok, and it’s no wonder America—in the eyes of Christians—looks different each day.”
How does this push the church into a new paradigm?
Lutzer goes on to argue that the secular America we see today is the new reality for the church. This forces us into a paradigm shift. For too many Christian Americans, our work has been focused on restoring America to it’s Christian heritage and to a time when biblical values governed our nation at the federal, state, and local levels. Returning to those days is unlikely. As John Dickerson points out in his book, The Great Evangelical Recession, the church in America is declining in members, dollars, and influence.
Rather than focusing on how we can restore America’s Christian heritage, we need to shift our focus to a more relevant question: how do we become faithful witnesses to a faithful God in the midst of a culture that despises Christian values and Christian commitment? As Russell Moore puts it, “Our call is to an engaged alienation, a Christianity that preserves the distinctiveness of our gospel while not retreating from our callings as neighbors, and friends, and citizens.”
What are the options Christians face for dealing with an alien culture? What would you say First Family’s approach is and your own personal approach?
There are three options that Christians typically face when confronted with cultural resistance: isolation, assimilation, and infiltration. Let me briefly explain each:
- The option of isolation. This option leads Christians to a place of being marginalized. “You don’t bother us, and we won’t bother you.” Honestly, that is probably the preferred option from the secular world. Shut up and stay out of sight. This is often rooted in a sense of anger and hopelessness. While it is a safe option, it is also the least effective in terms of being a Christian witness within our world.
- The option of assimilation. This is the opposite of isolation. Rather than fight or flight, we simply join the party. In World War II these people were identified as collaborators. Believe it or not, many of the evilest Nazi extermination camps were actually operated by Jews under German direction. In exchange for food and good treatment (for a time), Jews did the dirty work and led their fellow Jews into the gas chambers (assuring them all was well) and then disposed of their bodies after the gas had done its work. Assimilation is the coward’s way to respond.
- The option of infiltration without contamination. This option recognizes that God is the sovereign ruler of this world and that nothing happens that is not his will or desire. As Lutzer notes, God “sent” the Jews to Babylon (Jer. 29:7, 20). Even the mighty Babylonian army that destroyed Jerusalem and carried the Jews into exile did so at the direction of God Himself. Likewise, we, too, are sent into this world regardless of the spiritual condition. Jesus, the founder and Head the church, was a foreigner out of step with His own culture. What do we think our place should be any different?
How then should we live as foreigners in a secular culture?
The Lord gave Israel five instructions for how to live in a pagan culture. These are found in Jeremiah 29:4-7:
Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, to all the exiles whom I have sent into exile from Jerusalem to Babylon: Build houses and live in them; plant gardens and eat their produce. Take wives and have sons and daughters; take wives for your sons, and give your daughters in marriage, that they may bear sons and daughters; multiply there, and do not decrease. But seek the welfare of the city where I have sent you into exile, and pray to the LORD on its behalf, for in its welfare you will find your welfare.
- Build a house and live in it (v. 5). Connect with your neighbors and become involved in your community. This is home. We can’t run from it, and we can’t be an influence if we disengage. For most of the Jews who were taken exile, they would die in Babylon. They would never return to Jerusalem and see their religious heritage restored. So it is with us. We must learn to run the long race and learn how to be a faithful gospel witness in a pagan land.
- Build a strong family (v. 6). Strong families are the very foundation of a strong church. In spite of the fact that we now live in a pagan land, we need to be more committed than ever to raising godly children with a strong biblical worldview. This is not easy. We must recognize that public schools today are the indoctrination centers for a secular society. Al Mohler has even argued that Christians need an exit strategy from the public school system.4 For many of our families, however, that is an impossibility. As a result, parents need to work hard to raise a Daniel, young men and women who know the truth and are able to stand firm on God’s Word rather than bow to the false gods of this world.
- Build relationships within the city (v. 7). The word used in the Bible in v. 7 is “welfare,” which is the Hebrew word shalom. This word is often translated as “welfare” or “peace.” As Lutzer explains, however, it is much more than simple welfare or peace: it is a holistic view of God’s spiritual abundance. It can refer to prosperity, wholeness, blessing, or favor. As Christians, we can invest in our cities to bring the kind of wholeness or shalom that is impossible apart from God.
- Build a house of prayer (v. 7). It might surprise you that God would instruct the Jews to pray for the city of Babylon, but he did! We are most effective as Christians when we are before our Lord in prayer. We need to be in constant prayer for our neighbors, our schools, our community, our state, and our nation. Pray! Pray that God’s shalom would permeate this nation through the power of the gospel.
- Build for the future. In Jeremiah 29:10-13, the Lord told Israel they would be in Babylon for seventy years. As mentioned earlier, this was a lifetime for most of those who came to Babylon as captives. When there children returned from Babylon, they no longer spoke Hebrew, and had to have the Book of the Law interpreted for them (Neh. 8:1-8). The Jews had to accept that God’s future plans for Israel was beyond their lifetime. So it is with us. We may not see the time when Jesus returns for His church and establishes His Kingdom on earth (Titus 2:13), but we can live as faithful witnesses in the land God has sent us and seek to be godly parents raising the next generation of Christians.
How can you and your group engage our community for the gospel? If you have some ideas, share them with the elders by sending an email to email@example.com.
Becoming A House of Prayer
“Even them I will bring to My holy mountain, And make them joyful in My house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices; Will be accepted on My altar; For My house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations.” – Isaiah 56:7.
Prayer Focus for the Week of September 30 …
Our memory verse this week is Jeremiah 29:11 For I know the plans I have for you, declares the LORD, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope. Spend time in your group thanking the Lord for the promises found in this verse. Pray that as the Lord reveals His plans for our future, we will be faithful and not allow fear to reign in our hearts.
Pray that God will show you as a group this week how to become more involved in reaching our community with the gospel. Each one of us plays a role. What is God laying on your heart?
Questions to consider as you continue to reflect on what you learned this week:
- Take Action: Commit to spend time each day this week praying for our community. Pray that God’s Name would be glorified and God’s people would be faithful.
- Take Courage: God knows the plans He has for us. Just as He sent the Jews into Babylon, so He is sending us into our neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces.
Work to memorize this week’s memory verse: Jeremiah 29:11 For I know the plans I have for you, declares the LORD, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope.
Our Core Belief this week is God the Father (Psalm 121:1–2): We believe God is personally involved in and cares about the daily lives of His children.
Remember to use the Daily Bible Reading plan as part of your walk with Christ, taking the time to reflect on each passage and what it means for your lives.
2 Kings 3
1] Jehoram was the 2nd son of Ahab and Jezebel and successor of his brother Ahaziah, who died without having any children. In the 18th year after Jehoshaphat began reigning as sole king of Judah, Jehoram became king over Israel and reigned 12 years (852-841 B.C.).
2] Though Jehoram did get rid of this idol he remained sympathetic to and supportive of Baal worship in Israel (cf. 10:19-28).
3] The great ministry of Elisha, already begun and revealed in part, is now recorded in this large section of stories.
4] Mesha the king of Moab. The existence of this Moabite king is confirmed by an inscription on a pillar known as the Moabite Stone. The inscription indicates that Omri had conquered the plains of Moab north of the Arnon River, and that the area remained under Israelite control throughout Ahab’s reign. Thus the events of this chapter probably took place after Jehoram’s accession and shortly before Jehoshaphat’s death in 847 BC. (AMP SB Notes)
5] When Ahab died in battle, Mesha the Moabite king rebelled against King Ahaziah (1:1). Mesha considered Israel weakened enough, after Ahab’s death, for Moab to attempt to gain her freedom. (See 2 Chr 20 for a previous Moabite invasion of Judah, when the Moabites were destroyed, and Moab was left too weak to repel the alliance. This rebellion seems to have been ineffective since Mesha also rebelled against Ahaziah’s successor, Jehoram (3:4-27).) Jehoram, therefore, gathered his troops together and made an alliance with Jehoshaphat to join forces with him to bring Moab back into subjection.
7] Jehoshaphat was related to the throne of the Northern Kingdom through the marriage of his son Jehoram to Ahab’s daughter Athaliah.
8] Jehoram suggested attacking from the south through the Desert of Edom rather than from the north, the more normal though heavily defended frontier. The route chosen by Jehoshaphat passed along the west side of the Dead Sea and around its southern end.
9] When they were unable to find water for their troops, their campaign not only was halted, but they were in danger of being conquered by the Moabites. Edom at this time was under Judah’s authority and joined the alliance. After marching through Judah down the southwestern coast of the Dead Sea, around the southern end, and into Edom, the army ran out of water.
11] As on an earlier occasion (1 Kgs 22:7) Jehoshaphat suggested they find a prophet of the LORD who could obtain instructions for them. One of Jehoram’s officers volunteered that Elisha was nearby. Probably the Lord had directed him there to be ready for this mission; it is unlikely that he was traveling with the army. Pouring water on the hands of another for washing was a servant’s work; Elisha had been Elijah’s minister (cf. 1 Kgs 19:21). Evidently the officer thought Jehoram did not know Elisha, which may have been the case. Whether Jehoram knew of Elisha or not, Jehoshaphat did. Humbling themselves before the prophet, the three kings paid him a visit.
12] King Jehoshaphat, being a God-fearing man, suggested they call a prophet of God to give them direction. (We could wish he had asked for God’s guidance before he formed this alliance with Israel’s godless king.) Elisha’s response is interesting and reveals his contempt for Jehoram.
13] Elisha’s question is probably an idiom meaning “Why should I obey you?” The prophet’s suggestion that Jehoram go to his parents’ prophets implies that since the king promoted Baal worship he should seek his own god. This barb forced Jehoram to face up to the impotency of Baal. Jehoram’s rejoinder placed the blame for the army’s predicament on the LORD. He had come to Elisha because now it was up to Yahweh to get them out of their trouble.
14]Elisha was not intimidated by Jehoram’s charge. He knew God had not directed Israel into its difficulty but that the army was there on the king’s initiative. Nevertheless for Jehoshaphat’s sake Elisha consented to seek a word from the Lord. (His words As surely as the LORD Almighty lives, whom I serve are strikingly similar to Elijah’s words to Jehoram’s father Ahab (1 Kgs 17:1; cf. 2 Kgs 5:16). Elisha received a direct revelation and proceeded to explain God’s plan. The campaign against Moab demonstrates how utterly abominable heathen religion was to God. The outcome was an object lesson to Israel showing her why she should turn from her idolatry. Nevertheless, she did not turn from it.
15] Harp music helped put Elisha into a frame of mind in which he could readily discern the Lord’s direction. (David’s harp-playing also helped soothe Saul, 1 Sam 16:23.)
19] Cutting down all the good trees would make it difficult for the Moabites to have fruit to eat and would mean they would have little shade. Stopping up all the springs would limit the Moabites’ water supply, and putting large stones in the fields would retard cultivation and lessen their productivity.
20] Evidently God caused the water from rains in Edom to flow down into the valley and fill the trenches that had been dug. This water was an expression of God’s love for His people. The fact that it had not rained locally probably caused the Moabites to think that having water in the valley was impossible. The morning sacrifice included a lamb and a grain and drink offering (Ex 29:38-43).
23] Not expecting water, the Moabites assumed that the water shining in the sunlight was blood. So the Moabite army erroneously concluded that the Israelites, Judahites, and Edomites had had a falling out and had slaughtered each other—not an unrealistic possibility. Thinking that the confederate kings had come to blows and the troops had destroyed each other, the Moabites forget about warfare and each man takes off to get his share of the spoil. This, of course, gives Israel a distinct advantage
24] Rather than advancing with weapons drawn for battle they ran to plunder the “dead” soldiers’ armor and weaponry. But instead, they ran into the waiting ranks of their enemies. Defenseless, the Moabites fled before the Israelites. The Israelites, and presumably their allies with them, invaded Moab, slaughtered the people, destroyed many towns, and did to the fields, springs, and trees what God had instructed (cf. 2 Kgs 3:19).
25] Such destruction represented the ordinary war policy of that time, now called a “scorched earth” policy. But Kir Hareseth, the major city and King Mesha’s refuge, could not be taken. It was situated at the end of a valley and successfully resisted the attacks of the stone slingers surrounding it.
26] Courageously he assembled 700 swordsmen, broke out of the city, and attacked the king of Edom, whom he apparently concluded was the weakest link in the three-nation alliance. He was not successful, however, and was forced back behind the walls.
27] Defeat in battle was regarded by pagan Near Eastern warriors as a sign that their gods were angry with them. To propitiate his god, Chemosh (1 Kgs 11:7, 33; 2 Kgs 23:13), Mesha offered his firstborn son, the heir to his throne, as a human sacrifice on top of the city wall. It was not Israel’s intent to annihilate the Moabites; they only wanted to keep their neighbors from rebelling against their sovereignty to keep them under their control. So offensive to the allies was Mesha’s act of sacrificing his son that they withdrew and returned home. Israel had won the battle even though they had not destroyed Kir Hareseth or captured Mesha.
“Great indignation in Israel” (not against, as in the AV). The Hebrew preposition here indicates that Judah and Israel were indignant because of this abominable act (cf. Lev 18:21; 20:3). If Israel was so deeply moved in this case, why was she not shocked enough to forsake her own idolatry? But idolatry continued in Israel and in Judah.
1 Ed Stetzer, Subversive Kingdom—Living as Agents of Gospel Transformation (Nashville: B&H, 2012), 220.
2 Erwin W. Lutzer and Ed Stetzer, The Church in Babylon: Heeding the Call to Be a Light in the Darkness (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2018).
3 Russell Moore, Onward: Engaging the Culture without Losing the Gospel (Nashville: B&H, 2015), 8.
4 Al Mohler Jr., Culture Shift—The Battle for the Moral Heart of America (Colorado Springs: Multnomah, 2008), 53.